It is important to note however, that the forerunner to exegetical preaching is exegetical study. You can’t have the former without the latter. You can’t have exegetical preaching simply by picking up a commentary or two, or clicking a few buttons in the computer program. It’s not that easy. I don't want to discourage anyone from pursing the exegetical study of the Word of God. It really is not that difficult, but does require certain tools and discipline. If you have any questions, don't hesitate to leave a comment.
These are some notes I took while reading Dave Black's book, "Using New Testament Greek in Ministry". I feel he does a great job of simplifying the task of exegesis.
I. Discovering the Text
A. Historical Analysis
Author, audience, date, occasion, purpose, cultural and sociological influences, other related background matters.
B. Literary Analysis
Canonical – place in Bible itself
Remote – paragraphs, chapter, or even entire book
Immediate – verses or paragraphs that immediately precede or follow the text
II. Understanding the Text
A. Textual Analysis
Attempt to determine the original wording of a document – Textual Criticism
B. Lexical Analysis
Determine the meaning of the words in the text – Word study
C. Syntactical Analysis
Involves attention to clauses and other unites that are larger than individual words. Also includes matters of tense, voice, mood, person, number, and case of individual words. Helps to determine an author’s thought patterns. Syntax is concerned with the meaning of words in their combination with other words.
D. Structural Analysis
Concerned with the ways clauses and larger thought units are placed in relation with each other. Cannot be translated into another language, because translators must use the grammatical system of the target language. Diagramming a passage can be helpful in determining its structure.
E. Rhetorical Analysis
RA is an attempt to clarify our understanding of the biblical text through a study of its literary techniques.